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Humoral Immunity

Cell Mediated Immunity

Fig.1-1 : Cell Mediated Immunity

Fig 1-2 : Antibody-mediated immunity

Fig 1-3 : Model of antibody molecule structure

Fig 1-4 : Primary and secondary responses to an antigen

Table 1-3

Fig 1-5 : Specificity, memory, and contraction of adaptive immune responses

Fig 1-6 : Maturation of T cells in the thymus. Precursors of T cells travel from the bone marrow throughthe blood to The thymus.In the thymic cortex, progenitors of αβ T cells express TCRs and CD4 and CD8 coreceptors.Section processes eliminate
Self-reactive T cell in the cortex at double-positive (DP) stage and also single -positive(SP) medullary thymocytes, they promote survival of thymocytes whose TCRs bind self MHC molecules with low affinity. Functional and phenotypic differentiation into
CD4+CD8- or CD8+CD- T cells occures in the medulla.and mature Tcells are released into the circulation. Some double-positive cells differentiate into regulatory T cell(the development of ϓϬ T cells is not showed.

Fig 1-7 : Classes of Lymphocytes.
lymphocytes recognize soluble antigen and develop into antibody-secreting cells.
Helper T lymphocytes recognize antigen on the surfaces of antigen -presenting cells and secrete cytokines, which stimulate different mechanism of immunity and inflammation. cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize antigen on infected cells and kill these cells.

Fig 1-8 : Phases of T Cell responses. Antigen recognition by T cells induced cytokine (e.g..’ iL-2)
secretion ;particularly in CD4-T cells, clonal expansion as a result of cell proliferation,
and differentiation of the T cells into effector cells or memory cells.
In the Effector phase of the response, the effector CD+T cells respond to antigen by
producing cytokines that have several action,
such as The recruitment and activation of leukocytes and activation of B lymphocytes,
while CD8+CTLs respond by killing other cells

Fig 1-9 : Function of different antigen- presenting cells.
The three major types of APCs for CD4+T
cells function to display antigen at different stages.
And in different types of immune responses.
Note that effector T cells activate macrophages and B lymphocytes by
production of cytokines and by expressing surface molecules.

Fig1-10 : A model for T Cell recognition of a peptide-MHC complex.
This schematic illustration shows an MHC molecule binding.
And displaying a peptide and a T cell receptor recognizing two
Polymorphic residues of the MHC molecule and one residue of the peptide

Figure 1-11 : Enhancement of class II MHC expression by –y. IFN`Y,
Produced by Nk cell and other cell types during innate immune reactions to microbes or
by T cell during innate immune reactions to microbes or
by T cells during adaptive immune reactions,
stimulates class II MHC expression on APCs AND THUS ENHANCES THE ACTIVATION OF cd4

Figure 2-1

Figure 2-2

Figure 2-3

FOUNDED by Karim Soudbakhsh “Herb’s physiology researcher" Natural Chemicals, Physics in natural medicine and biology. BS ENGINEERING.
We are a natural chemical factory. We would like to share our knowledge of "What we know about our resource".

the goal-oriented or directed behavior feedback mechanisms in biology teleological mechanics of nature. Teleology, the feedback mechanism is characterized by the fact the input is controlled By the output.

has considered or has been discovered combining biology and technology and acting as an outline of unifying the theory of feedback control that is applicable to machines as well organism (mechanical relay), including the brain, which it is the biggest Singularity on computerizing the technical operation. The executive organ modified the input of feedback and the indicator that continuously measures the output. The action of indicator, executive organ, transmitter, and motor in feedback loop can be described in biological systems and in the Machine. The brain and any organs intimately connected by a complex series of feedback loops in mechanical engineering (Connection regulator between THE HYPOTHALAMUS- PITUITARY- In Roles of "organs" Hormones). The pituitary and Hypophyses glands in the brain- each-of which release various naturel chemicals that actually they are hormones and have so many important actions in the body and regulate the function of several of other glands. The pituitary gland secretes so many hormones which " Somatotropin "is more commonly known as growth hormone, and effect increase the functional capacity of organs, bones, lean, muscles.

I believe the anatomy and physiology of the human body also is like a Chemical factory as well, which built by the main equipment; immune system, immune cells (Immune defense mechanisms). The science of immunology is concerned with the specific mechanisms
By which living tissues react to foreign biological materials (including invading microorganisms) so that resistances or immunity develops. The integrity of defense system of the host, and its ability to react to and overcome invasion microorganisms, is of vital importance for The survival of the individual. The generation of an immune respond depends upon the interaction of three components of mechanism.
The immunogen is called the afferent branch, and stimulates the Central or intermediate parts to produce antibody molecules or Sensitized lymphocytes (efferent branch), depending on nature Of the stimulating immunogen. For understanding the manual of operation just needs to learn All about a sandwich, Alteration of the Lymphatic and immunity “Immunology”, they are specialized for function by the design of God in our chemical factory. I call the names of a few of them that have relative to Bactria, infection and viruses. They are such as: Immunochemistry (e.g. the chemistry of immunization); Immunocompetence (e.g. Inhibit immune cells function); Immunoglobulin (A diverse group of plasma proteins mechanisms for Protection against of organisms).Immunodeficiency (e.g. T-cell- mediated immunity, Inhibits components of the immune system. AND important one; Humoral immunity which it has following benefits: The protective activities of antibodies against infection or reinfection by common organisms 
(e.g. streptococci and staphylococci). B- Lymphocytes system: Producing plasma cells which produce antigen Specific antibodies. Secreted by “T4” cells and foreign antigens proceed by macrophages. Antibodies produced by plasma B-cell found mainly in blood in the Lymphatic system, Neutralize or destroy antigens in several ways: They kill organisms by activating the complement system, Neutralize viruses and toxins released by Bactria, coat the antigen (opsonization) or form an antigen antibody complex to stimulate Phagocytosis, promote antigen clumping (e.g. glut nation) and Prevent the antigen from adhering to host cells (meditated, immunoglobulin).

 ll- meditated a

 Cell- meditated and Antibody mediated immunity.

Both “T” cells and “B” cells attack antigens, but they do so in different ways:

“T” cells attack antigen directly (cell to cell contact), this immune respond.

Called Cell-meditated immunity.

“B” Cells , on the other hand , interact with the antigen indirectly through the secretion of antibodies (called Antibody meditated immunity), Because, The antibodies are carried by the blood and tissue fluid (the body humors), this Type immunity called “Humoral immunity”.

Cell- meditated “T” Functions. Fig 1-1

Antigen presentation: The Macrophage digests the antigen and pushes the Antigen to its surface of pathogen (this ability called ant-presentation).

“T” Cells Activation: activation of the “T” Cells always requires an antigen-presenting cell, such as a macrophage.

Clone: The activated cell divides repeatedly, resulting in larger number of T cells, A group of identical cells formed from the same parent cell.  There are four subgroups within the clone: Killer T cells, Helper T cells, Suppressor T cells and Memory T cells.

Killer T Cells: Destroy the antigen (pathogen)through punching holes in the Pathogen’s cell membrance and secreting substances called Lymphokines (enhance phagocytic activity), Also the Killer T cells engage in cell-to-cell combat.

Helper T Cells: Secret a Lymphokine that stimulates both “T”Cells and “B”cells In general, enhances the immune response.The helper “T”cell is also called the CD4+ T cell( because of surface protein Called CD4+). The CD4+ T cell is a marker for immune function and count usually Decreases as the infection progresses.

Suppressor “T”cells: The suppressor T cells control “B” and “T” activity, Also inhibit the immune response when the antigen has been destroyed.

Memory “T”Cells : These Cells remember the initial encounter with the antigen,

If the antigen is presented at some future time, the memory cells quickly reproduce and thus allow a faster immune response to occur.

Antibody-mediated immunity (“B”Cells Function).

“B”cells fight at a distance through the mediation of antibodies, macrophages not Only engage in phagocytosis, but also present the antigen to the Lymphocytes.

Activated “B” cells produce a clone of cells that secret antibodies, the antibodies are carried by the blood and body fluids to the antigen-bearing pathogens.

Individual” B”cells can produce over 10 million different antibodies, Each of which React against antigen. The large numbers of antibodies allow the body to develop

Immunity against many different diseases, showed the steps in antibody -mediated immunity. fig 1-                                                                 



What is antibodies: The antibodies secreted by the B cells are proteins called

Immunoglobulins, destroy antigen. They accomplish this task directly by attacking the membrance and in directly by activating complement proteins that, in turn, facilitate the attack on the antigen.  

The Immunoglobulin molecule is made of four polypeptide chains.

Two light and two heavy chains. They are holding together in a Y shape by disulfide bound and non-covalent interactions.

There are five major different types of heavy chain designated, on each respectfully for the five major antibody classes, Or what are known as Isotypes

( IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD  and IgE ).

The three most abundant immunoglobulins are Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin A and Immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin E, is involved in

Hypersensitivity reactions.

Antibodies (Ig) are found in primary in the plasma in the gamma globulin part of The plasma proteins,

Immunoglobulin G (IgG): Is an antibody found in plasma and body fluids, It is Particularly effective against certain bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

Immunoglobulin A(IgA): Is an antibody found primarily in the secreting of Exocrine glands. Ig in food and juice help protect against infection.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM): Is an antibody found in blood plasma and associated with red blood cells are a type of IgM antibody.

Primary and Secondary Responses’

Activated when exposed to an antigen, B Cells produce many plasma cells and memory cells. The plasma cells secret antibodies; This initial response to antigeIs called Primary Response (Fig 1-4).

The Secondary Response: Responds quickly and produce a larger number of antibodies, secondary respond is so much greater and initial exposure to antigen.

Has stimulated the formation of both antibody -secreting plasma cells and memory cells. the memory cells, which live for long time in the plasma, are activated very quickly on the second exposure. The activated memory cells, in turn, Induce the formation of many antibody-secreting plasma cells. This fast reaction accounts for larger number of antibodies associated with secondary responses,

Cardinal features of adaptive immune response.

All Humoral and Cell – Mediated immune response to foreign antigens have a number of fundamental properties that reflect the properties of

Lymphocytes that mediate these responses (Table 1-3)’; Also, In (Fig 1-5), macromolecule,” specificity, memory, and contraction of adaptive immune responses”. Antigen X and Y induce the production of different antibodies(specificity). The secondary response to antigen X is more rapid and larger than the primary response (memory).

Antibody level decline with time  after each immunization (contraction, the process that maintains homesostasis), the same features are seen in  cell -mediated immune responses.

In General Rule

In Immune responses, the course of a variety of diseases in hypersensitivity is Believed to play an important rule. Although missive does of Methylprednisolone

Have been known to cause a fall in concentration of (Ig) in plasma of human Volunteers, these same subject produced antibodies normally in response to

Antigenic stimuli (Butler,1975).

“Ig” and “TCR” Genetic Loci, Relationship, Function and Arranging its germline Locus Organization.

“Ig” and “TCR” Genetic Loci are fundamentally similar and are characterized by special segregation of many different sequences that encode variable domains and relatively few sequences that encode constant domain of receptor proteins. Distinct variable region sequences are jointed to constant region sequences in

Different Lymphocytes. Each germline “TCR” Locus is arranged in a very similar way to the “Ig” loci. Noncoding sequences in the “Ig” loci play important in recombination and gene expression. The relationship of “TCR” gene segments and corresponding portion of “TCR” proteins that they encode. As in “Ig” molecules, “TCR”(V&C) domain assume and “Ig” fold tertiary structure, and thus  the “TCR”Is a member of “Ig” supper family of proteins.

Rearrangement of “Ig” and “TCR” genes represents a special kind of Non- Homologous DNA recombination event, mediated by the coordinated.

Activities of several enzymes, some of which are found only in developing Lymphocytes, whereas other are ubiquitous DNA double-stranded break repair.

(DSBR)enzymes. The accessibility (specific loci) of “Ig” and “TCR” loci to enzymers that mediate recombination is regulated in developing “B” and “T” cells by several mechanism, including epigenetic alternation in chromation structure and DNA and basal transcription activity in the gene loci. 


“Antibody Engineering”

The techniques of genetic in Mechanical Engineering have led to the prospect of

Reshaping (dislocation, displacement, and the fraction, of course not only depends on environmental temperature also on how tightly the atoms (human cells) are bonded as atomic rearrangements in position in human body).

The energy requirement for an atom to change position, we can call that “activation Energy “and identify this energy per atom or Q per mole’. (I believe the activation energy in cells, balancing or motioning immune cells together per same time in your engine is the key for increasing the life expansion, ages and gain Healthy systems, free from risk of any disease). So, the techniques of genetic engineering have the prospect of reshaping or designing human antibodies for specific therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.

These are what are known as Monoclonal Antibodies, recombinant antibodies constructed by variable region from work (heavy and light chains), antigen-bonding site and patient can be treated with these engineered antibodies (myeloma cells is considerable for recombinant antibodies for overcome of difficulty).

Certain microorganisms, viruses and parasites live inside host cells, a separate form of specific acquired immunity has evolved to combat intracellular infections involving lymphocytes differentiated in the thymus—hence “T” cell (have specialized receptor on the cells surface, known as “T” cells surface antigen

Receptors) which in conjunction with the major histocompatibility complex on the cell surface infected cell result in the involvement of T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells to combat intracellular infections by leading to the death of the infected cell.

Bonding of antigen to the T-cell receptor in conjunction with an associated complex of transmembrance peptides, results in signaling the cell to differentiate

and divide. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a central role in the immune system. An association of antigen with MHC molecule on the surface of cells is required for recognition of the antigen by the T-cell receptor that in conjunction with closely associated protein β2-microglobulin, Result in the recruitment of cytotoxic and helper T cell in the immune response. MHC molecules occur in three classes which they are responsible for recruiting cytotoxic T cells, involved in signaling T helper cells to recruit further B cells and microphages, including a number of other proteins with variety of other immunological functions. Structural analysis of class I and class II (MHC) molecules reveals them to be heterodimers with homology to immunoglobulin. The genes coding for class I (A, B, C, E, F, and G), class II (DR, DQ, and DP) And class III molecules or also what is known as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system are located on chromosom6.These genes supper families and T-cell both have structural homology with Immunoglobulin (Ig).

Regulatory cells suppress and prevent immune responses (e.g., to self-antigen).

Immune defense mechanisms contained white blood cells which
They have following (monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, Dendritic, mast, natural killer, basophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes)
Cells with specific performance and its benefits Including a red blood cells(erythrocyte), platelets, and its auxiliary equipment (other organs in the body): vascular system, blood vessel system arteries, veins, liver, eyes, lungs, pancreas, etc. Immune cells enclose many enzymes. Without proper enzymes, the immune cells become drafted into digesting foods which they cannot properly protect the optimal health and can leave the body open to all sort of ailments.
An enzyme (Plasm in) is eliminating unnecessary fibrin "unhealthy levels of fibrin" in the bloodstream that can run amok or on the wall of arteries can build up the thick coating of fibrin (dangerous gunk). That means the arteries become smaller and blood gets thicker so that causing poor circulation and lack of enough proteolytic enzymes in the bloodstream which are a recipe or reciprocating your heart, brain, and lung to disaster.
Including tissue, muscles, nerve fibers, and blood vessels to become rigid. They are also responsible for loosening the skin elasticity, muscle tone, and resulting in drooping and sagging skin and muscles.
Anyone of these blood cells · immune cells · are specialized for the function by the design of the God in his chemical factory, in his human-machine civilization. Erythrocyte {red blood cells}, Macrophages, Monocytes all surround by natural chemicals, complement system "group of proteins defend and kills microorganisms, remove dead cells, and stimulates the action of other immune system cells. When the immune system is missing arty of these elements "chemicals" people are vulnerable to specific types of diseases.
Erythrocyte is an Immune cell that carries oxygen to all parts of the body and protecting itself from viruses and bacteria or any foreign substances. These blood cells create a good achievement in blood, blood vessels, parts
of the body and protecting itself from viruses and energize, expand or expose the flesh and skin, and then weighed up by growing of nerve tissue arteries, and veins, powerful which they innervate every organ of the physical body.

About us (Part two)


In duration of my research, I learned if I will have known THE GENETIC ILLNESS, it was easier to find the chemicals which has a reaction with that ailment.

Now, I am writing some about the genetic engineering, terminology, and principals of molecular biology in engineering on base of materials science and engineering (polymers) And environmental engineering and science,” genetic engineering.”


Material and which contain only nonmetallic elements and share electrons to build up large molecules. (low density, extremely flexible and chemical based on carbon, hydrogen, and other nonmetals) These are often called macromolecules.

These large molecules contain many repeating units, or mers from which we get the word polymers. Which we are going to briefly induced to the following section. Terminology and the guiding principles


 In the field of biochemistry, microbiology and molecular biology” The transfer of genetic information is aiding environmental engineering and scientists in their search for solutions to environmental:

Including the exploitation of specific enzymatic pathways and to create genetically engineered organism for bioremediations. Development of sensitive probes for detecting the presence of specific bacteria or specific degradation capability, and development of immunoassay technical for analysis of specific pollutants such as pesticides.


The guiding principle for these recent advances involves the manipulation of genetic information. The genetic information of all living organisms is contained in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), DNA is a polymer made of several million nucleotides, each nucleotide being made up of the six-carbon sugar deoxyribose, a purine or pyrimidine base, and a phosphate, Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are the purine or pyrimidine base, and a phosphate, Adenine, (A) and guanine (G) are the purine bases, and cytosine (C) and thymine (T) are the pyrimidine bases (Fig 2-1.The individual nucleotides are hooked together via a phosphate-ester linkage to form a strand of DNA(Fig. 2-2)  Most DNA exists as the so called double helix in which two strands of DNA are bonded together in a complementary fashion where a purine or pyrimidine base on the other strand is  hydrogen-bonded to a complementary purine or pyrimidine base on the other strand(Fig 2-3). Most often guanine hydrogen-bonds with cytosine and adenine with thyme. A gene is a segment of DNA that contains information(codes) for the production (or replication) of a specific protein. The transfer of a genetic information via DNA usually involves ribonucleic acid (RNA) RNA is similar in structure to a single strand of DNA except that the sugar is ribose, and uracil (Fig. 2-1) replaces thymine as the second pyrimidine base involved. RNA may be used in several different ways to convert genetic information from DNA into desired products.

 A simplified way of looking as the transfer of genetic information from one generation to the next is as follows. A portion of genetic information contained in DNA is converted into a complementary strand of RNA. This RNA is then transferred to a site in the cell where replication occurs. (The ribosome). The sequence of bases in the DNA, now contained in this “messenger” RNA, tells what amino acids and thus what protein or enzyme is to be produced (or replicated). Several types of RNA are involved in the synthesis of a new protein in the ribosome.

Two forms of DNA are of interest. One is chromosomal DNA, which is the essential form that contains all the basic information required for normal cell metabolism, growth, and reproduction. The other is DNA contained in separate, relatively small, self-replicating circular fragments called plasmids. Plasmids contain genetic information that conveys additional capabilities to an organism such as resistance to toxic heavy metals such a as mercury or to drugs such as penicillin. A plasmid may also contain genetic information for a key enzyme that allows, and organism tom initiate a reaction with an organic compound that would otherwise be non-biodegradable by the organism.  Another interesting property of plasmids is that they can be exchanged between bacterial species, sometimes resulting in a particularly good combination of enzymes in one organism, allowing it to degrade a new organic chemical that is introduced into the environment. This is an important “adaptive” mechanism for bacteria.  It is known that some environmentally significant reactions such as degradation of halogenated organic compounds are encoded on plasmids.”

Much of the information contained in DNA and plasmids is unique to a specific organism, a specific degradation pathway, or production of a specific product. Scientists now have the capability of separating and identifying the components. (i.e., enzymes, genes, DNA, plasmids, etc..) responsible for these activities. With this capability comes the potential for manipulating, controlling, and understanding various biological reactions. Some specific examples are given next.

Example applications

They are having developed and introduced rapidly in helping to understand and solve environmental contamination problems. The environmental engineer and scientist is well advised to keep abreast of new developments.


Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering, sometimes called recombinant- DNA technology, involves.

The recombination of DNA from several sources. One successful application of genetic engineering is in the production of human insulin with genetically engineered bacteria. The genes involved in the production of insulin In the human pancreas were characterized, separated, recombined, and introduced into the Bacterium Escherichia coli. This process is termed gene cloning. The E. coli then Can produce large quantities of insulin precursors that are easily converted to human insulin be chemical means.

Another example involves the enzyme toluene dioxygenase. The genes responsible for production and activity of this enzyme, along with its ability to Biodegrade chlorinated organic compound such as TCE, were isolated from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida Fl and placed into an E. coli strain. This genetically engineered E. coli was then shown to degrade TCE as long as an Inducing substrate (toluene or isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside in this case) Was present. There are indications that enzyme activity such as this can be induced by means other than chemical addition (e.g., temperature).

Genetic engineering has resulted in at least one patented bacterium for use in Bioremediation. A.M. Chakrabarty developed a genetically engineered Pseudomonas strain by cloning four different plasmids into the organism, giving.

It the ability to biodegrade a wide variety of petroleum products. Successes like this and the other ones described lead some engineers and scientist to believe that genetic engineering holds significant promise for remediating many hazardous and industrial wastes and that we can develop “designer genes” for thew removal of specific pollutants. The use of genetic engineering is not without controversy. There is concern with

Release of genetically altered organisms into the environment. A current example Is the controversy surrounding use of genetically engineered corn. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces toxins that will some types of insects.                  These Insecticidal genes have been cloned into several varieties of corn with the goal of Protecting the corn without having to apply insecticides, one major concern is the development of insects that are resistant to these naturally produced toxins. There is also concern with gene transfer to other stains of corn and perhaps other plants. Finally, there is concern about the potential human and environmental health effects of long -term exposure to these genetically engineered plants.

IN CONCOLUTION: designed about Fundamentally new platform from and mRNA. Technology behind the medicine development or vaccine (concept as household names?). Biologist have documented how very large viruses…of new viruses, which eventually explode from and kill the cell they infect.… the structures within bacteria to mimic those found in eukaryotic cells.


When it meets a host cell, a virus can insert its genetic material into its host, literally taking over the hosts’ function, an infected cell produces more viral protein and genetic material instead of its usual products.

MESSENGER RNA (mRNA), DNA, and PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. The power of mRNA technology is also essential for reaction in bio- medical field. mRNA is the single -stranded intermediate molecule that transfer the genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template in the formation of polypeptide. Messenger RNA Carries the instructions for making proteins. mRNA is “messenger” RNA. mRNA is synthesized in nucleus using the nucleotide sequence of DNA as template. This process requires nucleotide triphosphates as substrates and catalyzed by the enzyme RNA POLYMERASE II. The process of making mRNA from DNA is called transcription, and it occurs in the nucleus. The mRNA directs the synthesis of proteins, which occurs in the cytoplasm. mRNA formed in the nucleus is transported out of nucleus and into The cytoplasm where it attaches to the ribosomes. Proteins assembled on the Ribosomes using the mRNA nucleotide sequence as guide; thus, mRNA carries. a “message” from the nucleus to cytoplasm. The message is encoded in the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA, which is complementary to the nucleotide.sequence of the DNA that served as a template for synthesizing the mRNA. Making proteins from mRNA is called translation. 


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